Driver crashes shortly after startup in Ubuntu 17.10

Specs:

CPU: AMD FX-6300 Black Edition (stock settings)

Motherboard: Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD3 rev. 4 (IOMMU controller enabled)

RAM: Corsair Vengeance 1866 MHz CAS 10 2x8 GiB kit (XMP enabled)

Graphics card: MSI Radeon R9 390 GAMING 8G

Problem description

When attempting to boot to Ubuntu 17.10, after displaying a blank purple splash screen, the screen cuts to black. This either occurs immediately after startup completes or a few seconds later. Visual artifacts in the form of horizontal and vertical lines generally accompany one of these crashes. I am able to use Windows 10 Home 64-bit (build 15063.674) with this computer and have encountered no similar issues using that operating system.

Troubleshooting steps taken

1.) Booted with "nomodeset" instead of "quiet splash". Boot was successful, but graphics drivers are not loaded with this option, so it is not a good workaround.