Can cpu be damaged by underated motherboard?

Firstly I'll apologize if this has been answered elsewhere, but I did check. I purchased the then-flagship processor, FX9590 Vishera 8 core 4.7 Black edition, a ASROCKS Fatali1ty Killer 990FX motherboard. Unbeknownst to me was the fact that the processor used a minimum standard of 220w TDP and the motherboard I got was around 140w TDP rating. Before continuing I'll mention I have a ets-t50 heat tower which is rated a 250 TDP (so, in theory it shouldn't be my issue) It would boot and play some games without any problem. Some I would get BSOD with "KMODE exception not handled" (no driver mentioned) or something and other similar vague blue screens that was telling me something was not stable and then restard. It would keep booting up and performing rudimentary functions such as low intensity games and web browsing - It was as if the motherboard really wanted to be that fish that could climb a tree and fool me into thinking everything was fine until - I updated my bios, and sure enough the updated bios detected that it wasn't anywhere near the power needed and would not continue to load from that point. My immediate thought is to simply replace the motherboard, but I'm curious to know if this bad arrangement could have damaged my cpu, memory or graphics card? I don't want to spend money on more equipment without understand the risk at least.